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Methods to Be taught C# Half 4 – Variables and Sorts

Final Replace: Dec 31, 2022

This tutorial is a part of a collection. You’ll be able to see the opposite tutorials under:

Partly 4 of my studying C# tutorial collection we’re going to speak about variables and kinds in C#. I hope to offer you a normal concept of how variables work in C#, and introduce you to varieties that are a core a part of the language. Should you’ve performed some programming in different languages this may in all probability be a fast skim, however in the event you’re a newbie it’s one you gained’t wish to miss.

What’s a variable?

A variable is a storage place for knowledge. Consider it like a mailbox. You’ve a wall of mailboxes in an condominium constructing the mail service places mail into the field for later retrieval by you.

However how do does she or he know the mail will go to the appropriate individuals? Every field is given a novel identifier resembling an condominium quantity and probably your title on the field so every letter that’s addressed to you, will attain you. While you go to retrieve it, you recognize which field is yours due to those self same labels.

That’s how variables work as properly. Variables are given distinctive names so you possibly can determine them later, when storing or retrieving data. You’ll be able to then retailer, reuse and manipulate knowledge in program. Every of these variables has a novel title, and a sort assigned to it.

int apples = 0;       // integer
string myname = "Jeremy"  // string
double pivalue = 3.14     // double

What’s a sort?

Each variable and expression (we’ll get to these) in C# has a sort. That is the kind of knowledge that’s saved within the variable which could possibly be numbers, letters, or objects. There are a number of inbuilt varieties which might be principally for numbers, and there are complicated varieties that you’ll create resembling objects, collections, and extra. To discover a good analogy for varieties, look in your kitchen. In a single cabinet you’ve got plates, in one other bowls, and a drawer for silverware. The cabinets are variables and bowl is a sort.

Your kitchen is a loosely typed state of affairs, as a result of you possibly can put cups with the plates, and transfer the silverware with the bowls in the event you actually wish to. Should you’re like me you’ve got a big different that gained’t tolerate such disorganization and can insist all the pieces is stored separate, or “strongly typed”. Bowls go together with bowls, and silverware goes in a drawer.

She has an excellent level: if all the pieces have been combined up we’d by no means be capable of discover something after we want it. After I put the dishes away it will be lots simpler and quicker to stuff them wherever they match, however would trigger some issues down the highway. Programming languages are the identical method. I’ll elaborate on that in a bit.

Listed here are the inbuilt varieties for C# that we’ll be speaking about:

C# Kind .NET Framework Kind Description
bool System.Boolean Shops Boolean values true and false
byte System.Byte Unsigned Integer from 0 to 255
sbyte System.SByte Signed 8-bit integer from -128 to 127
char System.Char Unicode 16-bit Character from U+0000 to U+ffff
decimal System.Decimal 128-bit ±1.0 x 10-28 to ±7.9 x 1028 (approximate)
double System.Double 64-bit floating level from ±5.0 x 10-324 to ±1.7 x 10308 (approximate)
float System.Single 32-bit floating level from ±1.5 x 10-45 to ±3.4 x 1038(approximate)
int System.Int32 Signed 32-bit integer from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647
uint System.UInt32 Unsigned 32-bit integer from 0 to 4,294,967,295
lengthy System.Int64 Signed 64-bit integer from -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807
ulong System.UInt64 Unsigned 64-bit integer from 0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615
object System.Object Alias for a .NET Framework object
quick System.Int16 Signed 16-bit integer from -32,768 to 32,767
ushort System.UInt16 Unsigned 16-bit integer from 0 to 65,535
string System.String zero or extra Unicode characters

That is taken from the MSDN Web page on Constructed-In Sorts which comprises extra detailed details about every sort.

Variables in C#

We name these containers variables as a result of the information regularly adjustments, but the kind of knowledge it comprises doesn’t. Variable can imply a number of issues in C# that means it may be a neighborhood variable, or fields or properties in objects. For now we’ll simply speak about native variables that will probably be used to retailer data inside a technique.

To declare a variable, you have to first declare the sort, then the title you need for it.

This declares an integer worth named apples, and units it to 0. You’ll be able to simply create the variable with none knowledge like this:

However you have to assign this variable a price earlier than attempting to make use of it, in the event you don’t the compiler offers you an error. Let’s take our hiya world app, and add this variable to it:

namespace HelloWorldApp
  class Program
      static void Major()
          int apples;
          System.Console.WriteLine("Howdy, World!");

While you attempt to compile this system, you get the next warning:

int.cs(7,15): warning CS0168: The variable ‘apples’ is said however by no means used

Be aware that that is solely a warning, this system will nonetheless compile and run, however you’re warned that you’ve got a variable that isn’t getting used. So what occurs after we attempt to use it?

namespace HelloWorldApp
  class Program
      static void Major()
          int apples;
          System.Console.WriteLine("We've got {0} apples in our basket", apples);

As you possibly can see we create the variable apples after which we attempt to use it although it has no worth. While you compile it you’ll get the next error:

int.cs(8,57): error CS0165: Use of unassigned native variable ‘apples’

An error is extra severe than a warning: this program won’t compile. When a neighborhood variable is created it’s important to give it a price earlier than we use it. Change this system to the next:

namespace HelloWorldApp
  class Program
      static void Major()
          int apples = 42;
          System.Console.WriteLine("We've got {0} apples in our basket", apples);

Now whenever you compile it, you’ll get no errors or warnings since you created a variable, assigned it a price of 42, after which used it. After it compiles, run it and also you’ll see:

We’ve got 42 apples in our basket

That is our anticipated output.

A word about variable naming

Discover how we named the variable apples to characterize what number of apples we now have. The reality is, the compiler doesn’t care in the event you title it apples, oranges, or oiueoriue. It’s solely helpful for programmers, you may title the variable “a” and the subsequent one you want “b” in the event you actually needed to. However the subsequent time you return into your code, or another person does issues will probably be lots tougher. At all times give your variables useful names that characterize the information being saved.


Strings are what we have been coping with in our hiya world app. A string is a sequence of Unicode characters that characterize textual content. Most human readable gadgets are saved in strings. A string is a reference sort, however you and likewise use it as an object to do do comparisons and I’ll display that in a future tutorial. You’ll be able to be taught extra about strings within the MSDN C# Reference.

string sentence = "The short brown fox jumped over the lazy canine";


The char sort comprises a single Unicode character throughout the legitimate vary. They’re 16 bit values and may be very helpful in lots of conditions. You’ll be able to write Hexadecimal Unicode and Integers right into a char worth when wanted.

char ourHexChar = 'x0058';   // Hexadecimal Worth


The Boolean knowledge sort solely shops both true or false values. You’ll be utilizing Booleans lots in your expressions. Boolean values are used for checking, validation and stream management. It’s an important a part of any utility. Right here’s an instance:


Integers characterize complete numbers. Integer knowledge varieties are greatest for discrete values, resembling incrementers, rows in a database or any worth constrained to a complete quantity. The advantage of utilizing integers is the computation is actual, no rounding or guessing concerned.

knowledge varieties that use integers are sometimes called integral knowledge varieties. This could generally confuse new programmers as a result of they journey up on the phrase “integral” or mistake it for “built-in”. Integral simply means a price that makes use of integers.

Signed and unsigned integers

Of the integer knowledge varieties you’ll discover a few of them have damaging numbers some don’t. Unsigned integers can solely acknowledge constructive numbers, whereas signed values can characterize damaging or constructive. Why do we now have these two completely different knowledge varieties? You’ll discover unsigned integers have a a lot larger most worth, as a result of it makes use of area that may in any other case be used for damaging values.

For instance a signed 16-bit integer has a most worth of 32,767. If the worth you’re storing is bigger than that you simply’ll have to make use of a 32-bit integer. Nonetheless if you recognize you’ll by no means want damaging numbers you should use an unsigned 16-bit integer as giant as 65,535 in the identical 16 bits of area.

Many languages don’t help unsigned integers so that you’ll generally discover varieties within the .NET framework that don’t use damaging values, but nonetheless use signed integers for compatibility. The impact this has on reminiscence and efficiency may be very minimal.

8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit integers

These days 32-bit integers are probably the most extensively used. It is because it presents an excellent vary of values and may be very environment friendly with 32-bit CPUs. Listed here are among the makes use of for every sort:

8-bit – generally used for I/0 and community connections when byte-oriented operations are optimum.

16-bit – Largely used for compatibility with outdated protocols an interfaces.

32-bit – Most regularly used for integer operations

64-bit – used for very giant values the place the 32-bit limitations usually are not optimum.

Large Integers

In model 4 of the .NET framework you’ve got BigInteger as an possibility. That is for very giant values however there’s a key distinction in that it’s a dynamic knowledge sort, and it’ll solely use as a lot area because it wants. As the dimensions of the integer grows extra space is allotted, that means your theoretical dimension restrict relies on how a lot reminiscence you’ve got. Not one thing you’d wish to use except you completely want it.

Floating Level

Floating level numbers are named such as a result of there’s a fastened variety of digits obtainable, however the decimal level is allowed to “float” round, for instance:


Whereas the decimal level is allowed to maneuver throughout the quantity the quantity of precision adjustments. Precision is the quantity of element allowed in your worth. For instance, our financial system makes use of a precision of two digits, resembling


There isn’t any such worth as $10.345 as a result of we typically don’t deal by way of fractions of a cent. As you possibly can see from our desk above, you possibly can have float values starting from ±1.5 x 10-45 to ±3.4 x 1038(approximate). Should you want a higher vary you should use one thing like lengthy (-9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807) and even ulong for very giant constructive values (0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615).

Since I discussed precision earlier, you could be questioning if knowledge may be misplaced, or calculations can probably be inaccurate if there’s not sufficient precision and the worth is truncated. That is right, and although it’s pretty correct in the event you’re doing one thing that requires absolute outcomes from computations you’ll wish to use the subsequent knowledge sort.


For top precision computation resembling accounting, you’ll wish to use the decimal format. As a result of floating level numbers are rounded off, you possibly can find yourself with small incremental adjustments to every worth that may result in inaccuracies. This is the reason you’ll use the aptly named decimal knowledge sort for decimal values. Decimal knowledge varieties have a precision as much as 28 digits and gained’t give surprising outcomes for exact calculations.

You wish to use this knowledge sort solely when it’s wanted as a result of there’s a commerce off and decimals are barely much less environment friendly than double or float due to the conversions from decimal to binary and vice-versa.


On this tutorial I’ve defined variables, what they’re the best way to assign them. We additionally talked about among the varieties obtainable. As a result of this began to get so lengthy winded I haven’t lined all the pieces on the topic however given you an excellent basis to start out with. You’ll be working with variables and kinds lots sooner or later, and I’ll cowl extra as we go on.

In case you have any questions or feedback, go away them under I’ll be checking them regularly. Within the subsequent tutorial we’re going to cowl some statements.

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